Searching for program dependencies.

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Searching for program dependencies.

Postby edbarx » 2014-11-23 11:14

We will start with the obvious using apt-cache depends. Let us do it for medit:
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edbarx@sid-inst:~$ apt-cache depends medit
  Depends: libatk1.0-0
  Depends: libc6
  Depends: libcairo2
  Depends: libgcc1
  Depends: libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0
  Depends: libglib2.0-0
  Depends: libgtk2.0-0
  Depends: libice6
  Depends: libpango-1.0-0
  Depends: libpangocairo-1.0-0
  Depends: libpython2.7
  Depends: libsm6
  Depends: libstdc++6
  Depends: libx11-6
  Depends: libxml2
  Depends: python
  Depends: python-support

To list the library dependencies of a program or library, use this command:
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ldd /path/to/executable/file

Example: Let us list the library dependencies of /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
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edbarx@sid-inst:~$ ldd /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007fff6f9fc000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f056976a000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f0569547000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f0569265000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f056904e000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f0568e4a000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f0568c2c000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f0568883000)
   /lib64/ (0x00007f0569ba2000) => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f0568671000)

To discover what functions are imported by an executable, use the command:
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nm -D /path/to/executable/file | grep " U "

Example: Let us list what /bin/ls imports:
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edbarx@sid-inst:~$ nm -D /bin/ls | grep " U "
                 U abort
                 U acl_extended_file
                 U acl_get_entry
                 U acl_get_tag_type
                 U __assert_fail
                 U bindtextdomain
                 U calloc
                 U clock_gettime
                 U close
                 U closedir


                 U stpcpy
                 U stpncpy
                 U strchr
                 U strcmp
                 U strcoll
                 U strcpy
                 U strftime
                 U strlen
                 U strncmp
                 U strrchr
                 U strstr
                 U strtoul

Example: Let us list the imported functions by /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
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edbarx@sid-inst:~$ nm -D  /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ | grep " U "
                 U __assert_fail
                 U calloc
                 U __clock_getcpuclockid
                 U __clock_getres
                 U __clock_gettime
                 U __clock_nanosleep
                 U __clock_settime
                 U __endmntent
                 U errno
                 U fcntl
                 U fdatasync
                 U __fortify_fail
                 U free
                 U fsync
                 U __getmntent_r
                 U getpid
                 U gettimeofday
                 U getuid

To list what functions are exported by a library or executable, use:
Example: Let us list what exports:
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edbarx@sid-inst:~$ nm -D /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ | grep " T "
0000000000041bc0 T a64l
00000000000363a0 T abort
0000000000038200 T abs
00000000000e70d0 T accept4
00000000000df050 T acct
00000000000438b0 T addseverity
00000000000e60c0 T __adjtimex
00000000000b72d0 T alarm
00000000000b39a0 T alphasort
00000000000e6020 T __arch_prctl
000000000008c890 T __argz_count
000000000008cad0 T argz_delete
000000000008ca80 T __argz_next
000000000008cca0 T __argz_stringify
00000000000a7de0 T asctime
[.....] ( there are many more exported functions )

Example: Let us see what functions /bin/mount exports (programs usually do not export functions):
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edbarx@sid-inst:~$ nm -D /bin/mount | grep " T "
0000000000405c1c T _fini
0000000000402a28 T _init

There is also objdump which can be used to discover what a library contains and even to list its assembly code.

By inspecting what libraries an executable file (program) uses, and what functions a program imports, it is possible to port it to your distribution of choice.
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