Optimize installation on new SSD

Help with issues regarding installation of Debian

Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby newtimes333 » 2016-11-25 19:23

Hello.

First of all, I really like Debian GNOME! Stable and good looking. This is also the only OS where I've managed to get both graphics and WIFI to work at the same time (windows included). AMD Radeon...

I just bought a Kingston SSDNow UV400 120GB SSD to put inside my 3 year old HP Pavilion Laptop.

Can I just do the official netinst for the "stable" release and what it suggest regarding partitions and so on? I've read that SSD work better with certain disk partition types. Also read somewhere that you should leave some free diskspace on the drive.

How would you optimize this disk for Debian? I will only use it on this compute so no dual boot and so on.

Cheers.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby RU55EL » 2016-11-25 20:28

I suggest you do some reading in the Debian Administrators Handbook.

Assuming no UEFI, my preference would be GPT partition table, 20G root partition, 4G swap (adjusted as needed to match RAM), and the remainder as /home partition. Read the section on partitioning in the Debian Handbook. It will explain the Debian installation choices.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby pylkko » 2016-11-25 20:34

In the wiki there is page called SSD optimization.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby newtimes333 » 2016-11-25 21:31

That was a nice handbook, thanks RU55EL!

My PC has UEFI and I've secure boot disabled.

I know about the choice “All files in one partition”, this is how I use another disk now with Debian. Never did a manual partition.

Should I use 20GB root partition, 8GB swap (I have 8GB RAM) and the rest for the /home partition then. And no free space?

Ext4 filesytem is recommended according to the wiki. So all partitions in ext4?

Sorry guys for the maybe stupid questions. I would just love to get it right from the beginning this time. Installed maybe 10 different OS:es in the last month, more than once... :oops: Also read somewhere that you couldn't use the SSD to it's potential or even damage it if you picked the wrong stuff.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby bw123 » 2016-11-25 23:02

There are a lot of threads about ssd, but I don't think the forum search will find three letters, maybe try search for "solid state" instead. Lot of people have made the switch.

I never did an install, but I did clone my system over to ssd a few months ago. I used fdisk, it looks like this

Code: Select all
# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 111.8 GiB, 120034123776 bytes, 234441648 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xb54f27ac

Device     Boot    Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *        2048     83967     81920   40M  6 FAT16
/dev/sda2          83968   4483071   4399104  2.1G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4483072  67397631  62914560   30G 83 Linux
/dev/sda4       67397632 234441647 167044016 79.7G  5 Extended
/dev/sda5       67399680 193228799 125829120   60G 83 Linux



The installer probably uses a partitioner called partman, also in debian is one called cfdisk, which I used to use, I like it very much, but it sets the start of 1st partition to 63 instead of 2048, which I think would be an error. I think the start of first partition will be the important thing for you to set right. The rest of the stuff like partition size probably won't matter, I partitioned all available space. Some research says to leave some space unallocated, but it's vague about how over provisioning works. The phenomenon it mentions is 'wear leveling' so maybe check that out before you do your work.

Good info is hard to find, but kingston may have some tips, I'd try them first.

Don't forget to make arrangements for trim. There are at least two ways to do it.

Package smartmontools will give you the lowdown after you install it, you should wait a few minutes before rebooting because some of these devices will start a smart test automatically when they receive it's first smart command.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby RU55EL » 2016-11-26 00:15

newtimes333 wrote:That was a nice handbook, thanks RU55EL![...]
Should I use 20GB root partition, 8GB swap (I have 8GB RAM) and the rest for the /home partition then. And no free space?
Ext4 filesytem is recommended according to the wiki. So all partitions in ext4? [...].


I create a GPT partition table.

Then use at least 20G for the root partition in ext4.

If I have 8G of ram, I set the swap for 8G in "swap" file system.

The remainder I would partition as /home in ext4.

As long as the SSD doesn't have anything you want to loose on it, try guided partitioning with separate /home and see what Debian sets up. You can adjust the partition sizes to suit your preferences.

I usually boot with a gparted live disk and create the GPT partition table and the base partitions. Then boot from the Debian installation USB or CD and just set up what I want each partition for manually partition set up.

If you get fed up, you can just let Debian guided partitioning do the partitioning for you.

[edit]

Here is an example from my old Dell Latitude D530 with 4G ram and a 120G SSD:

Code: Select all
russel@d530:~$ lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 119.2G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0    20G  0 part /
├─sda2   8:2    0     4G  0 part [SWAP]
└─sda3   8:3    0  95.2G  0 part /home


Code: Select all
russel@d530:~$ sudo fdisk -l
[sudo] password for russel:

Disk /dev/sda: 119.2 GiB, 128035676160 bytes, 250069680 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: 8050826F-6C6F-4590-B3BC-56C764858FEB

Device        Start       End   Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1      2048  41945087  41943040   20G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda2  41945088  50333695   8388608    4G Linux swap
/dev/sda3  50333696 250068991 199735296 95.2G Linux filesystem
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby newtimes333 » 2016-11-26 01:42

Thanks for your inputs.

I guess I will have to try it out. I've gotten a bit smarter now.

It just feels like there is so many different answers out there. Like swap for example to. Some say don't use it on a SSD if you have enough RAM.

I've both read on Kingston's homepage that my SSD supports TRIM and on some forum that you should not use it because it inflicts with the build in garbage control or something like it.

This guy sums it up quite well to me and gives some tips on optimizing TRIM and SWAP:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfmxnYkHTNU and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovjl9Ki-EFg

I will follow your suggestions and use the optimizing methods from the link above.This is just a cheap SSD that I will put in a old laptop. The laptop will probably die before the SSD anyhow.

I still like to understand how it works though and what's the right way of doing things. :)
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby Head_on_a_Stick » 2016-11-26 11:59

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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby Segfault » 2016-11-26 13:05

8 GB of RAM > 8 GB of swap? What a nonsense. Unless you want to hibernate, do you?
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby RU55EL » 2016-11-26 16:18

8G ram = 8G swap

True, this is really not needed. I can't remember the last time one of my computers used any swap space. In my experience Debian rarely uses more than about 1G of ram as it is. Matching the swap size with the ram size should allow hibernation without problems.

Code: Select all
russel@debian-nuc:~$ sudo ps_mem.py
 Private  +   Shared  =  RAM used   Program

124.0 KiB +  20.5 KiB = 144.5 KiB   minissdpd
144.0 KiB +  35.5 KiB = 179.5 KiB   cat
164.0 KiB +  36.0 KiB = 200.0 KiB   gnome-pty-helper
192.0 KiB +  26.0 KiB = 218.0 KiB   acpid
212.0 KiB +  18.0 KiB = 230.0 KiB   start-pulseaudi
200.0 KiB +  53.5 KiB = 253.5 KiB   atd
300.0 KiB +  60.5 KiB = 360.5 KiB   rtkit-daemon
260.0 KiB + 121.5 KiB = 381.5 KiB   rpc.idmapd
316.0 KiB +  80.0 KiB = 396.0 KiB   dbus-launch
324.0 KiB +  75.0 KiB = 399.0 KiB   cron
568.0 KiB +  19.5 KiB = 587.5 KiB   ssh-agent
480.0 KiB + 167.0 KiB = 647.0 KiB   rpcbind
640.0 KiB + 175.0 KiB = 815.0 KiB   at-spi-bus-launcher
652.0 KiB + 165.0 KiB = 817.0 KiB   rpc.statd
600.0 KiB + 254.0 KiB = 854.0 KiB   agetty (4)
668.0 KiB + 189.0 KiB = 857.0 KiB   gconfd-2
756.0 KiB + 104.0 KiB = 860.0 KiB   dnsmasq
800.0 KiB +  61.0 KiB = 861.0 KiB   systemd-logind
416.0 KiB + 531.0 KiB = 947.0 KiB   avahi-daemon (2)
748.0 KiB + 200.0 KiB = 948.0 KiB   at-spi2-registryd
804.0 KiB + 165.0 KiB = 969.0 KiB   gvfs-mtp-volume-monitor
860.0 KiB + 111.0 KiB = 971.0 KiB   dconf-service
804.0 KiB + 203.0 KiB =   1.0 MiB   gvfs-goa-volume-monitor
808.0 KiB + 218.0 KiB =   1.0 MiB   gvfsd-burn
824.0 KiB + 220.0 KiB =   1.0 MiB   gvfsd
  1.1 MiB +  72.5 KiB =   1.2 MiB   bluetoothd
  1.0 MiB + 176.0 KiB =   1.2 MiB   gvfsd-fuse
  1.0 MiB + 203.5 KiB =   1.2 MiB   gvfs-gphoto2-volume-monitor
  1.3 MiB +  94.0 KiB =   1.4 MiB   exim4
  1.1 MiB + 338.5 KiB =   1.4 MiB   gvfs-afc-volume-monitor
  1.2 MiB + 242.0 KiB =   1.5 MiB   gvfsd-trash
  1.4 MiB + 167.0 KiB =   1.5 MiB   accounts-daemon
  1.4 MiB + 249.5 KiB =   1.6 MiB   gdm3
  1.2 MiB + 428.5 KiB =   1.7 MiB   sshd
  1.2 MiB + 445.0 KiB =   1.7 MiB   upowerd
  1.6 MiB +  99.5 KiB =   1.7 MiB   systemd-udevd
  1.4 MiB + 402.0 KiB =   1.8 MiB   zeitgeist-daemon
  1.0 MiB + 780.0 KiB =   1.8 MiB   sudo (2)
  1.2 MiB + 764.5 KiB =   1.9 MiB   (sd-pam)
  1.9 MiB +  75.5 KiB =   2.0 MiB   rsyslogd
  1.7 MiB + 429.0 KiB =   2.1 MiB   gvfs-udisks2-volume-monitor
  1.5 MiB + 548.0 KiB =   2.1 MiB   gsd-printer
  1.8 MiB + 345.5 KiB =   2.1 MiB   udisksd
  1.7 MiB + 586.0 KiB =   2.3 MiB   openvpn
  1.9 MiB + 552.0 KiB =   2.4 MiB   x-session-manag
  2.0 MiB + 438.5 KiB =   2.5 MiB   gnome-keyring-daemon
  2.4 MiB +  92.5 KiB =   2.5 MiB   xprop
  2.3 MiB + 382.0 KiB =   2.7 MiB   gdm-session-worker
  2.5 MiB + 173.5 KiB =   2.7 MiB   polkitd
  2.6 MiB + 164.0 KiB =   2.7 MiB   gvfsd-metadata
  2.2 MiB + 557.0 KiB =   2.7 MiB   tracker-miner-user-guides
  2.3 MiB + 598.5 KiB =   2.8 MiB   wpa_supplicant
  2.1 MiB + 986.5 KiB =   3.0 MiB   mission-control-5
  2.8 MiB + 557.5 KiB =   3.3 MiB   packagekitd
  2.7 MiB + 656.0 KiB =   3.3 MiB   tracker-miner-apps
  3.0 MiB + 365.0 KiB =   3.3 MiB   ModemManager
  1.7 MiB +   1.7 MiB =   3.4 MiB   systemd (2)
  3.5 MiB + 652.5 KiB =   4.2 MiB   dbus-daemon (3)
  3.0 MiB +   1.3 MiB =   4.4 MiB   gnome-shell-calendar-server
  3.7 MiB + 862.0 KiB =   4.5 MiB   NetworkManager
  3.6 MiB +   1.2 MiB =   4.8 MiB   gsd-locate-pointer
  3.9 MiB +   1.1 MiB =   5.1 MiB   bash (2)
  4.7 MiB + 516.0 KiB =   5.2 MiB   colord
  3.7 MiB +   1.7 MiB =   5.4 MiB   evolution-source-registry
  4.8 MiB + 862.5 KiB =   5.7 MiB   pulseaudio
  5.5 MiB + 789.0 KiB =   6.3 MiB   zeitgeist-datahub
  6.4 MiB +  99.0 KiB =   6.5 MiB   systemd-journald
  6.1 MiB +   1.1 MiB =   7.2 MiB   tracker-miner-fs
  6.4 MiB + 971.0 KiB =   7.4 MiB   zeitgeist-fts
  5.7 MiB +   2.1 MiB =   7.8 MiB   nm-applet
  8.4 MiB +  39.5 KiB =   8.4 MiB   dhclient
  5.7 MiB +   4.5 MiB =  10.2 MiB   goa-daemon
  9.3 MiB +   2.0 MiB =  11.3 MiB   gnome-terminal-server
 11.8 MiB + 556.0 KiB =  12.4 MiB   tracker-store
 10.6 MiB +   2.3 MiB =  12.9 MiB   applet.py
 11.8 MiB +   2.9 MiB =  14.7 MiB   gnome-settings-daemon
 11.3 MiB +   7.3 MiB =  18.6 MiB   evolution-alarm-notify
 18.4 MiB +   7.7 MiB =  26.1 MiB   Xorg
 20.6 MiB +   8.0 MiB =  28.6 MiB   keepassx
 29.5 MiB +   3.2 MiB =  32.7 MiB   transmission-gtk
 37.7 MiB +   3.1 MiB =  40.9 MiB   evolution-calendar-factory
 59.0 MiB +   4.1 MiB =  63.1 MiB   nautilus
 60.9 MiB +   4.0 MiB =  64.9 MiB   tracker-extract
242.8 MiB +   6.6 MiB = 249.4 MiB   gnome-shell
398.7 MiB +   7.5 MiB = 406.2 MiB   firefox-esr
---------------------------------
                          1.1 GiB
=================================


Code: Select all
russel@debian-nuc:~$ lsblk /dev/sdb2
NAME MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sdb2   8:18   0  9.3G  0 part [SWAP]


Code: Select all
russel@debian-nuc:~$ du -h /dev/sdb2
0   /dev/sdb2


Assuming no need to use suspend or hibernate what swap size would you recommend with a 120GB SSD and 8GB ram?
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby pylkko » 2016-11-26 20:48

I may be wrong, but since hibernation and hybrid sleep write the contents of the RAM in use as an image in swap, then you really might not ever need 8 GB of swap for hibernation with a machine of 8 GB of RAM, given that the entire memory is hardly going to be in use... Unless you are running several virtual machines or something, in which case you might just as well suspend or shut them down before you hibernate.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby alan stone » 2016-11-26 21:31

bw123 wrote:There are a lot of threads about ssd, but I don't think the forum search will find three letters, maybe try search for "solid state" instead.

https://lmgtfy.com/?q=site%3Ahttp%3A%2F ... an.net+ssd
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby newtimes333 » 2016-11-27 09:51

I never use hibernation. I think it is is disabled by default and I haven't put in on.

My computer is far from snappy. I think it has more to do with the old hardware and Gnome DE though.. I hope that a SSD will help out a bit.

Never use more than one virtual machine at the time but often have a lot of tabs in Chrome and listen to Spotify in the backgrund.

I've read some threads already but haven't found consensus on how to optimize a SSD.
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby ruffwoof » 2016-11-27 11:26

I run a 2GB ram with no swap (Debian Jessie stable) as a desktop system without any problems. Moderate use office documents/(large) spreadsheets, and typical web browsing.

All contained in a single partition (no separation of /home for instance). That same partition is also the 'persistence' partition for a live-boot choice that I mostly run i.e. the full install is also the 'save' partition. I like to boot the exact same instance each and every time which live-boot using a HDD installed base provides, all changes lost at shutdown (I store documents to disk directly). i.e. I only boot full install (read/write) to apply updates before rebooting live-boot style again. Live-boot stores all changes in memory, which runs faster than if they're being written/read from disk. Also helps to keep the system factory-fresh/pristine. The downside is that changes are lost, browser history/bookmarks etc. I however have a limited few (20 or so) that I've set to be preserved (via the full read/write boot session). For the likes of Osmo (diary/calendar), I've just sym-linked that to the 'save' area so changes are preserved across reboots.

If you've 8GB of ram then depending upon your usage there's potentially more than enough space without needing a swap partition. Yes maybe if you're running more of a server or virtual machines etc. but even then you can create and activate a swap file instead of using a allocated swap partition. Or maybe even just install/use zram.

For instance to create and activate a 1GB swap file :

dd if=/dev/zero of=/root/myswapfile bs=1M count=1024
chmod 600 /root/myswapfile
mkswap /root/myswapfile
swapon /root/myswapfile
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Re: Optimize installation on new SSD

Postby Head_on_a_Stick » 2016-11-27 11:35

ruffwoof wrote:For instance to create and activate a 1GB swap file :
Code: Select all
dd if=/dev/zero of=/root/myswapfile bs=1M count=1024

You may find this method to be quicker:
Code: Select all
# fallocate -l 1G /root/myswapfile

That command is in the util-linux package ;)
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