[SOLVED] "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Help with issues regarding installation of Debian

[SOLVED] "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby timshel » 2017-08-05 21:11

Hello! :D

I am attempting to install Debian Stretch 9.1.0 on a Dell XPS 15 9550. To do this, I downloaded debian-9.1.0-amd64-netinst.iso from which I created a bootable USB. The laptop unfortunately comes with a Broadcom network card:

Code: Select all
# lspci
...
02:00.0 Network controller: Broadcom Limited BCM43602 802.11ac Wireless LAN SoC (rev 01)
...


I am running the "Graphical Install." At the "Detect network hardware" step, I am prompted with the following:

Some of your hardware needs non-free firmware files to operate. The firmware can be loaded from removable media, such as a USB stick or floppy.

The missing firmware files are: brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.bin

If you have such media available now, insert it, and continue.
Load missing firmware from removeable media?
[ ] No
[ ] Yes


I downloaded the missing firmware file incated from the brcmfmac wiki page and placed it on another USB drive. Inserting the USB and selecting 'Yes' generates the same prompt.

Changing to another console via Ctrl+Alt+F2, I mount the USB, create the appropriate directories (as indicated by the wiki/Loading Missing Firmware documentation), and then copy the .bin file from the USB.

Code: Select all
# mount /dev/sdb /media
# mkdir /lib/firmware
# mkdir /lib/firmware/brcm
# cp /media/brcmfmac43602-pcie.bin /lib/firmware/brcm/


The directions on the wiki then says to reboot. This just resets everything. If I instead switch back to the graphical installer via Ctrl+Alt+F5 after copying the .bin and select 'Yes', the prompt is updated to read (emphasis mine):

Some of your hardware needs non-free firmware files to operate. The firmware can be loaded from removable media, such as a USB stick or floppy.

The missing firmware files are: brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt

If you have such media available now, insert it, and continue.
Load missing firmware from removeable media?
[ ] No
[ ] Yes


I cannot find this .txt file anywhere!

I had previously found the Package: firmware-brcm80211 (20161130-3). This seems like it might be useful. It looks like documentation for a package which would be installed after the Debian system is installed, however. On the right hand side are three files under the header: "Download Source Package".

[firmware-nonfree_20161130-3.dsc]
[firmware-nonfree_20161130.orig.tar.xz]
[firmware-nonfree_20161130-3.debian.tar.xz]


The first one appears to be list of hashes, etc. The latter two I downloaded and unpacked. Neither contains the necessary .txt. Regardless, I have tried taking the contents of both tarballs and placing them in /lib/firmware/brcm. No change in outcome.

Seaching the forums, I have come across two posts. The posts [SOLVED] Installing via USB, non-free drivers won't load and Installing from netinst iso; missing firmware for network seem most relevant. Neither mention this .txt file.

The first post's solution was to grab the entire bulk of firmware and mount that. Here's what I did.

1. Download firmware.zip from the Index of /cdimage/unofficial/non-free/firmware/stretch/current. I placed the contents in /firmware within the USB drive. No success. It was not automatically detected.
2. I went to TTY2, mounted the USB manually in /media. No success.
3. I copied the contents of firmware.zip to /lib/firmware. No success.

The second post's solution was to take a .deb and use dpkg to install it. When I try to take a .deb from the firmware.zip, say firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb, dpkg does not appear to be installed.

At one point I tried proceeding without internet. The installation works, but is too stripped down of a system. If I'm going to spend time fiddling with stuff, I might as well fiddle with this network card from the offset and save myself a little grief.

Is there anything I've overlooked? Do you have any suggestions? I can't help but think I'm close!
Last edited by timshel on 2017-08-08 22:52, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby stevepusser » 2017-08-05 21:34

2.17 Debian forum points for upon you for searching out that package's page. There's a non-obvious link at the bottom of the page where you can download the deb file of that package. I've heard it said that placing that file on a USB pendrive is enough to get the installer to see it; never done it myself.

There are also installer ISO images that Debian hides away (but not from search engines) that contain non-free firmware--we could hope that it has yours: https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unof ... 0+nonfree/

drill down into your architecture and then into the iso-cd if you want the netinstall image.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby kedaha » 2017-08-05 22:02

Although the installer rather confusingly states:
The missing firmware files are: brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt

in fact what is needed is not just those files but the package which contains them, namely firmware-brcm80211
Since you've already installed the system and you have the said package on a usb drive then, you can install the package offline using apt instead of dpkg, if you don't have that tool. Just copy the package to /var/cache/apt/archives/. The procedure (substituting your own path) is:
Code: Select all
root@debian:/media/user/usbpendrive# cp firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb /var/cache/apt/archives/
root@debian:/media/user/usbpendrive# cd /var/cache/apt/archives/
root@debian:/var/cache/apt/archives# ls |grep firmware-brcm80211
firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb
root@debian:/var/cache/apt/archives# apt install /var/cache/apt/archives/firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Note, selecting 'firmware-brcm80211' instead of '/var/cache/apt/archives/firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb'
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  firmware-brcm80211
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 69 not upgraded.
Need to get 0 B/3,604 kB of archives.
After this operation, 12.9 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Selecting previously unselected package firmware-brcm80211.
(Reading database ... 203083 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb ...
Unpacking firmware-brcm80211 (20161130-3) ...
Setting up firmware-brcm80211 (20161130-3) ...
root@debian:/var/cache/apt/archives#
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby stevepusser » 2017-08-06 02:48

A new feature with apt in Stretch is the ability to install standalone .deb packages like "dpkg -i", along with pulling in any required dependencies like gdebi, and we always wished dpkg would do. So just as sysadmin:

Code: Select all
apt install  blah-blah-something.deb
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby luvr » 2017-08-06 07:28

I documented what worked for me: How to provide non-free firmware files to the Debian Jessie Installer. There may be easier or better ways, but I couldn't find any at the time.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby kedaha » 2017-08-06 08:27

I think that because timshel has already installed a basic system from the debian-9.1.0-amd64-netinst.iso, then there is absolutely no need to reinstall the entire system but simply install, by means of apt, the necessary non-free Debian package firmware-brcm80211—which he's copied to another USB drive— as I've posted above.
On the other hand, the disadvantage of the method of manually installing only the firmware files, but not the debian package, is the files will not be visible to the packaging system via apt, aptitude or synaptic and therefore not receive software upgrades.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby timshel » 2017-08-06 14:52

Thank you everyone for your prompt and detailed replies! :D

My approach has been to get the network card working pre-install
rather than post-install because it is my understanding that doing
so in post will require me to install everything manually, from sudo
on up to the desktop environment. I can do that, but I'd rather not
if I don't have to.

After more fiddling, I am left with three primary questions:

1. Is it accurate to think that installing only the base system
first and then the network firmware will require me to install
everything else manually? I have not followed the advice to
install the firmware in post due to this concern.
2. Am I perhaps misunderstanding something regarding the
installation of the firmware package? I detail below what I
understand to be the installation of the firmware package yet it
does not achieve the results I expect, namely the recognition of
the network controller by the installer.
3. What is this brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt file? In all
the firmware packages I've looked at, there never seems to be a
.txt file within them. Perhaps knowing its function can provide
me with different search terms to use in seeking a solution.

What follows are the steps I took to install the network firmware
pre-installation. (Apologies for the formatting, as I wrote this post
up in Emacs first and can't fix the linebreaks set by auto-fill.)

-------

As indicated by stevepusser, at the bottom of the package page is
indeed a section titled "Download firmware-brcm80211". Clicking the
link to 'all' in this section brings up to a list of mirrors from
which the file firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb can be
downloaded.

Here is the direct link to the
mirror
list. (Perhaps a future person may find the path helpful to walk
down).

It appears that this .deb is identical to the one I found in the
Index of
/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/firmware/stretch/current
(albeit
simpler to obtain).

I am having mixed success placing the .deb on a USB. Placing the
file on a flash drive (with no directories, just the file), I notice
that the installer does automatically create /lib/firmware/brcm and
fills it with the package contents. That is, it appears to
automatically mount the USB and handle whatever package management
is needed. This is good because TTY2 doesn't recognize the dpkg or
apt commands. The files in the /lib/firmware/brcm directory
correspond to those listed on the package page. I infer from this
that the firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb has been
installed.

This is a partial win because, despite the apparently correct
mounting/installation of the package, I am still prompted for the
(doggone) /brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt.

luvr has done an excellent job documenting their experience. For
prosperity, I found that the link they provided didn't work. It
seemed that it required logging in or was tied to their account
specifically. However, a DuckDuck search for the post name
yielded:

https://www.linuxquestions.org/question ... ?p=5362837

The advice in their post seems to follow, in essence, what I have
described above, namely obtaining the .deb package for the
firmware and installing.

To install, luvr seems to have unpacked the package on a separate
machine and placed its contents onto a USB which they mounted to
/lib/firmware.

This seems to be what happend for me, although in my case the
package was unpacked into /lib/firmware/brmc automatically. The
additional directory /bmrc does deviate slightly, but 1) it is
mentioned in the documentation for
brcmfmac and 2) based on
my previous attempts, it seems the installer just traverses
sub-directories of /lib/firmware until the appropriate files are
(not) found. It seems to me that this achieves, via a different
route, the same ends as luvr describes.

All this seems at odds with kedaha's advice of needing to install
firmware-brcm80211. Please don't think I'm saying you're
wrong, kedaha! I'm just not sure what the cause of the inconsistency
is.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby luvr » 2017-08-06 16:05

timshel wrote: in my case the package was unpacked into /lib/firmware/brmc automatically. The additional directory /bmrc does deviate slightly, but 1) it is mentioned in the documentation for brcmfmac and 2) based on my previous attempts, it seems the installer just traverses sub-directories of /lib/firmware until the appropriate files are (not) found.

Not exactly—If it is unpacked into a subdirectory, then that means that the driver will look for the firmware file in that specific location. In principle, the driver could just as well look for the file in the base location, ‘/lib/firmware’, but for no specific reason, the driver will look for it in a subdirectory instead.

All this seems at odds with kedaha's advice of needing to install firmware-brcm80211. Please don't think I'm saying you're wrong, kedaha! I'm just not sure what the cause of the inconsistency is.

It’s not really “at odds”, in that installing the package will ensure that the Debian package manager (i.e., the APT system) knows about the existence of the file and can maintain it—i.e., it will be kept up-to-date should a new version of the package ever become available.

Unpacking the “.deb” package and copying its contents to the ‘/lib/firmware’ directory will allow the system to load the required firmware file in order to get the device operational, but unless you subsequently install the package, it will not automatically be kept up-to-date for you. In fact, after I booted my installed system for the first time, I installed the packages that included the firmware files that my system needed.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby kedaha » 2017-08-06 18:05

timshel wrote: After more fiddling, I am left with three primary questions:

1. Is it accurate to think that installing only the base system
first and then the network firmware will require me to install
everything else manually? I have not followed the advice to
install the firmware in post due to this concern.

No.
From the base system it is trivial to continue with the installation by executing tasksel; take a look at the man page.
but first, all you'd have to do would be to configure apt, i.e., by editing /etc/apt/sources.list to include, for example:
Code: Select all
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main

But that's easy enough.
timshel wrote: 3. What is this brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt file? In all
the firmware packages I've looked at, there never seems to be a
.txt file within them. Perhaps knowing its function can provide
me with different search terms to use in seeking a solution.

I don't think so. Probably it's just a name to load it, just a binary blob
timshel wrote: I am having mixed success placing the .deb on a USB. Placing the
file on a flash drive (with no directories, just the file), I notice
that the installer does automatically create /lib/firmware/brcm and
fills it with the package contents. That is, it appears to
automatically mount the USB and handle whatever package management
is needed. This is good because TTY2 doesn't recognize the dpkg or
apt commands. The files in the /lib/firmware/brcm directory
correspond to those listed on the package page. I infer from this
that the firmware-brcm80211_20161130-3_all.deb has been
installed.

So what's the end result? You have now installed a basic system again and cannot proceed with the installation because the network and apt did not get configured? You can see if it's installed with a command like apt-cache policy firmware-brcm80211.
But you'll need to find your wireless interface and bring it up; see, for example wiki.debian.org/WiFi/HowToUse via the command line.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby timshel » 2017-08-06 19:50

Before having seen kedaha's response about updating after a base install being trivial, I had found a solution/work around. Here are the steps that I followed:

1. I downloaded the firmware package, firmware-brcm80211 in my case. From the package description page, at the bottom is a section titled "Download firmware-brcm80211". Within this section is a link for "all". Clicking on the "all" link takes you to a mirror list.

2. Placed the .deb file which was downloaded in Step 1 onto a vfat formatted USB drive. I placed it at the top level with no other files or directories. Inserted the package USB along with the install CD/USB and booted to the install USB.

3. Following the "Graphic Install", the "Detect network hardware" screen prompted for /brcm/brcmfmac43206-pcie.txt. Going into TTY2 via Ctrl+Alt+F2 I saw the package contents in /lib/firmware/brcm.

4. [The workaround] Since I couldn't find any reference to the .txt file on the internet, I figured maybe it's a file for network configuration. In my best Walter Sobchak voice, I said to myself, "You want a text file? I can get you a text file, believe me. There are ways, Dude."

Code: Select all
# touch /lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt


5. Ctrl+Alt+F5 back to the "Graphical Install" and I was presented with a network configuration screen. I had a bit of tomfoolery connecting to my network. First was some nonsense about DHCP not being set up on my router. Then trying again it had a problem authenticating to my open network. It could have been user error, but the installer kept popping up different screens each attempt. But after a few retries with the auto-configuration, it eventually made the connection and the installation proceeded without any further problems.

During install, I forgot to check if anything was written to the .txt. After installation, however, the /lib/firmware/brcm directory still existed with all the package content and the .txt that was created. It was empty. :roll:

After restarting and logging in as user, I connected to wifi via the graphical interface. Once my user got sudo privileges, I ran

Code: Select all
$ sudo apt-get install firmware-brcm80211


To my understanding, that should keep me up-to-date?

Thanks for everyone's help! Before I mark it as solved, I want to make sure that I didn't unwittingly set myself up for future problems or do something that's risky.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby kedaha » 2017-08-07 07:13

Some of your hardware needs non-free firmware files to operate. The firmware can be loaded from removable media, such as a USB stick or floppy.

The missing firmware files are: brcm/brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt

If you have such media available now, insert it, and continue.
Load missing firmware from removable media?
[ ] No
[ ] Yes

The debian-installer is basically a user-friendly graphical user interface (or GUI) to set up a fully-working system quickly and efficiently. But the message quoted above assumes a familiarity with loading non-free firmware which really corresponds to an expert install when, in your case, all that was needed was to be informed that the missing firmware is contained in the firmware-brcm80211 package, which, if my memory serves me right, I installed some time ago on a laptop without all the rigmarole.
Of course, you could've saved yourself the time and repeated installation attempts by using a wired ethernet connection when the installation wouldn't have been interrupted and then enabled the wireless interface in half a minute by installing the package in question.
Finally, as I explained before, apt, while not so user-friendly as the debian-installer (or d-i for short), can do exactly the same job as the d-i, even if you start from a basic system in order to configure the network and software sources.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby timshel » 2017-08-08 22:52

Thank you for your help kedaha. I wish I had seen your replies before doing the extra work. Hopefully someone else will read this in the future and benefit from it!

As a follow up, this is being posted from the Debian install. :D I checked /etc/apt/sources.list and was surprised to find:
Code: Select all
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 9.1.0 _Stretch_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20170722-11:28]/ stretch main
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 9.1.0 _Stretch_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20170722-11:28]/ stretch main

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free

as the only entries. It looks like I was somehow only pulling from the non-free repositories. Checking the Debian Sources List, I updated it with the "free" repositories, so that it reads:

Code: Select all
# [TIMSHEL20170808] It seems that the 'free' repositories weren't included in installation.
# [TIMSHEL20170808] These were added manually from: https://wiki.debian.org/SourcesList
deb  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main
deb-src  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main

deb  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main
deb-src  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main

deb http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main

# [TIMSHEL20170808] The following were the only repositories added during install
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free

The 'free' repositories are listed first because the man page for sources.list (5) states:
It is important to list sources in order of preference, with the most preferred source listed first.


Since no one has warned me that this is going to catch on fire, and it makes sense to me, I'll go ahead and mark this as 'SOLVED'. Thanks for the help, all! :D
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby sunrat » 2017-08-09 00:27

timshel wrote:As a follow up, this is being posted from the Debian install. :D I checked /etc/apt/sources.list and was surprised to find:
Code: Select all
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 9.1.0 _Stretch_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20170722-11:28]/ stretch main
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 9.1.0 _Stretch_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20170722-11:28]/ stretch main

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free

as the only entries. It looks like I was somehow only pulling from the non-free repositories.

This shows all available repos. "free" is "main". contrib and non-free are only added if you request it.
Checking the Debian Sources List, I updated it with the "free" repositories, so that it reads:

Code: Select all
# [TIMSHEL20170808] It seems that the 'free' repositories weren't included in installation.
# [TIMSHEL20170808] These were added manually from: https://wiki.debian.org/SourcesList
deb  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main
deb-src  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main

deb  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main
deb-src  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main

deb http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main

# [TIMSHEL20170808] The following were the only repositories added during install
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free

Now you have duplicate entries. This will show an error when updating but should still work.
...
Since no one has warned me that this is going to catch on fire, and it makes sense to me, I'll go ahead and mark this as 'SOLVED'.

Not quite right yet. Your original sources list was fine.
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby timshel » 2017-08-11 13:47

sunrat wrote:
timshel wrote:As a follow up, this is being posted from the Debian install. :D I checked /etc/apt/sources.list and was surprised to find:
Code: Select all
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 9.1.0 _Stretch_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20170722-11:28]/ stretch main
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 9.1.0 _Stretch_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20170722-11:28]/ stretch main

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free

as the only entries. It looks like I was somehow only pulling from the non-free repositories.

This shows all available repos. "free" is "main". contrib and non-free are only added if you request it.
Checking the Debian Sources List, I updated it with the "free" repositories, so that it reads:

Code: Select all
# [TIMSHEL20170808] It seems that the 'free' repositories weren't included in installation.
# [TIMSHEL20170808] These were added manually from: https://wiki.debian.org/SourcesList
deb  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main
deb-src  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main

deb  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main
deb-src  http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main

deb http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main

# [TIMSHEL20170808] The following were the only repositories added during install
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch main non-free contrib

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free

Now you have duplicate entries. This will show an error when updating but should still work.
...
Since no one has warned me that this is going to catch on fire, and it makes sense to me, I'll go ahead and mark this as 'SOLVED'.

Not quite right yet. Your original sources list was fine.



Thank you, sunrat. To make sure I understand correctly, the different repos are distinguished by the "main", "non-free", and "contrib" on each line? That is, the different repositories are like in-line arguments associated with the base path rather than separate urls?
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Re: "Firmware can be loaded from removable media" How?

Postby dasein » 2017-08-11 14:20

First, have a read here: viewtopic.php?f=12&t=130997

Second, have an actual read here: https://wiki.debian.org/SourcesList

To be clear: reading the Wiki page does not mean glance, peruse, skim, etc. It means study, absorb, actively seek to comprehend. Be prepared to pass a short quiz at the end, including trick questions.

Basic repo management is a core skill for any Debian user; you can't fake it or "phone it in." It is also not even remotely close to difficult. Treat anything you don't understand (yet) as a sure sign that your attention to the subject remains incomplete.
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