Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

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Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-22 13:06

I am asking this question because I'm not sure what I'm dealing with. I had a spare laptop I didn't use so I decided to try and install Debian on it. I'm currently experimenting with a Rasp Pi and well. I was warned that Debian is not for beginners though so perhaps it's my own fault.

However I ran into trouble at the installation. I started installing debian through a USB stick, however it said there is non-free firmware that needed to be installed for iwliwifi or something (didn't write it down, damnit). It said I could enter a USB stick (for example) to to bring it into the installation and do the install of that firmware there and then. However I didn't have another working USB stick to go transfer that file. So I thought I can probably do that later.

Now I was doing the dutch installation so I'm not sure if I translate it correctly. But it asked me to connect a mirror... server(?)... to it. It seemed to me that it was asking for an internet connection to some place. However I thought because something with wifi needed firmware this wasn't going to work obviously... Then it warned me that if I didn't do that I would have a really minimum installation of Debian. I would have the bare minimum. And I proceeded.

Now I could have kind of expected this to happen. I'm stuck at some command line. However I'm trying to look up how to install this firmware now, and secondly maybe expand this installation so I have some kind of desktop installation like with a GUI and everything.

Now here are some sources that I'm trying to use:
https://wiki.debian.org/iwlwifi
https://serverfault.com/questions/24092 ... -on-debian

In the second link it says to just open up /etc/apt/sources.list and add non free on the end. However I know nothing about the command line. So I just entered /etc/apt/sources.list after ~$ and it said acces denied.
Then the third comment in that second link said to do "sudo apt-add-repository non-free" and "sudo apt-get update". I thought perhaps it will do that. So with that first sudo it said "command not found". However I thought it should still be able to do the update probably. So I still tried "sudo apt-get update". And it said command not found as well. This is me trying to solve it myself. However now I'm worried that I'm stuck with such a basic install that even the most basic commands can not be found.

So I'm asking for advice on what to do now basically. It doesn't matter that much as it's a spare laptop and I basically tried this for fun. See where it gets me. However being at this command line I don't even know how to shut down the laptop actually.

Then the other steps would be install the firmware and get a user interface to load so it acts more like a normal dare I say it windows computer.

Any help greatly appreciated!

Edit: So apparently shut down does work with the normal PC button. But what next is beyond me.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby kedaha » 2019-10-22 13:53

hi
Debian's OK for beginners but may need a little configuration to set things up.
First things first (things like shutdown later or in another topic).
There's not much point altering the sources until you have configured an internet connection.
Rather than sudo (not generally used by debian users), use the command
su -
with the hyphen to get root.
I think firmware-iwlwifi may be what you are looking for.
Download and copy the above package to a usb memory stick then it can be inserted and installed.
Then the package can be installed with # dpkg --install firmware-iwlwifi*
Note you need to put add the asterisk so as not to have to type the entire package name
but you'll need to find, via the command line where the usb is.
For example, on my system I would do it with:
root@kedaha:/media/kedaha/TOSHIBA# dpkg --install firmware-iwlwifi*
If you have any problem finding the path, just post again.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-22 16:18

I tried yours because my USB stick is in fact a Toshiba one, replacing my name. But it said it didn't find it. Searching for it doesn't give any easy answers either so yeah I'm curious what to do now.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby Head_on_a_Stick » 2019-10-22 16:39

Open a terminal window and run this command as root:
Code: Select all
dmesg -w

Then plug your USB stick in and read the new messages that appear in the terminal window, these will tell you what the USB stick is called.

For example:
Code: Select all
[ 6814.039246] usb 1-4: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
[ 6814.191365] usb 1-4: New USB device found, idVendor=0951, idProduct=1665, bcdDevice= 1.00
[ 6814.191369] usb 1-4: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
[ 6814.191372] usb 1-4: Product: DataTraveler 2.0
[ 6814.191374] usb 1-4: Manufacturer: Kingston
[ 6814.191376] usb 1-4: SerialNumber: 60A44C413E29FE61EB4CF82B
[ 6814.229760] usb-storage 1-4:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
[ 6814.230165] scsi host1: usb-storage 1-4:1.0
[ 6814.230369] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[ 6814.233963] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas
[ 6815.312920] scsi 1:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Kingston DataTraveler 2.0 1.00 PQ: 0 ANSI: 4
[ 6815.313882] sd 1:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
[ 6815.313991] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] 15131636 512-byte logical blocks: (7.75 GB/7.21 GiB)
[ 6815.314255] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
[ 6815.314256] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 45 00 00 00
[ 6815.314516] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[ 6815.317764]  sdb: sdb1
[ 6815.320508] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk

^ That's the output produced by a "Kingston DataTraveler" USB stick, it has been assigned to /dev/sdb and it has a single partition (/dev/sdb1).

So I would use this command to mount the USB stick and install the .deb file:
Code: Select all
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
dpkg -i /mnt/firmware-iwlwifi*.deb

Adapt that for your system according to the dmesg output you see.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-22 18:17

Head_on_a_Stick wrote:Open a terminal window and run this command as root:
Code: Select all
dmesg -w

Then plug your USB stick in and read the new messages that appear in the terminal window, these will tell you what the USB stick is called.

For example:
Code: Select all
[ 6814.039246] usb 1-4: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
[ 6814.191365] usb 1-4: New USB device found, idVendor=0951, idProduct=1665, bcdDevice= 1.00
[ 6814.191369] usb 1-4: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
[ 6814.191372] usb 1-4: Product: DataTraveler 2.0
[ 6814.191374] usb 1-4: Manufacturer: Kingston
[ 6814.191376] usb 1-4: SerialNumber: 60A44C413E29FE61EB4CF82B
[ 6814.229760] usb-storage 1-4:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
[ 6814.230165] scsi host1: usb-storage 1-4:1.0
[ 6814.230369] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[ 6814.233963] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas
[ 6815.312920] scsi 1:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Kingston DataTraveler 2.0 1.00 PQ: 0 ANSI: 4
[ 6815.313882] sd 1:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
[ 6815.313991] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] 15131636 512-byte logical blocks: (7.75 GB/7.21 GiB)
[ 6815.314255] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
[ 6815.314256] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 45 00 00 00
[ 6815.314516] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[ 6815.317764]  sdb: sdb1
[ 6815.320508] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk

^ That's the output produced by a "Kingston DataTraveler" USB stick, it has been assigned to /dev/sdb and it has a single partition (/dev/sdb1).

So I would use this command to mount the USB stick and install the .deb file:
Code: Select all
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
dpkg -i /mnt/firmware-iwlwifi*.deb

Adapt that for your system according to the dmesg output you see.


Edit: Wait, I had to do it in steps. First root, then password, then dmesg. It's doing something now.

Ok so I tried typing what you suggested just afterwards. Didn't quit or anything. And it didn't give any errors but it didn't confirm anything either it just stays blank. And it was the same sbd: sbd1 message for me, so I think I don't have to change anything. But now it's just sitting here lol...

Edit 2: Ok I quit the laptop and started it again kind of on the assumption that the names stay the same. And it seems like it worked! It was busy with it and set it up and now it's letting me type in more commands again.

Kedaha you said something about setting up an internet connection first?
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby kedaha » 2019-10-22 19:10

ImportantBookWorm wrote:Kedaha you said something about setting up an internet connection first?

Ping some internet address to see if you have connectivity. E.g.
ping forums.debian.net
Control c to stop it
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby Deb-fan » 2019-10-22 19:22

Were you going for a full Debian installation ? Yeah I agree with the person who said first things 1st, that being getting the drivers/modules you'll need to get wifi working if you don't have a hard-wired connection available that's recognized. You clearly won't be able to install anything from the repositories without a.) Correcting your sources.list and b.) working wifi, if wifi is the only available connection for you. What do you have in/as sources.list anyway ?

Assuming you're dealing with Buster, googling things like "sources.list +Debian Buster" should turn up plenty examples of what should be in your sources.list file. Also obviously yes, that operating system is going to be missing a bunch of packages and their related commands thus such cmds won't be usable until those are installed. A Debian install in that state for sure isn't so much new-user friendly. Though Debian and gnu/Linux in general is so well documented online pretty much everything is covered if you have good searchengine-fu skills.

Cool tip: Chroot from live-session. Example let's say you have an ailing Debian install (it's missing closed source or proprietary software packages needed to get wifi working.) Someone can use another distro's iso in live session, one that does have the missing firmware for that pc's wireless. By way of example let's say a Linux Mint usb/iso. See this live session chroot howto. Have resorted to doing similar many times. The iso which does support your wifi out-of-box, will enable you to chroot that Debian install with wireless working. You'll still probably have to populate the sources.list files with the correct repositories. Then be able to install the wireless drivers and whatever else you need/want from the Debian repo's.

Note: Actually have had to resort to using a Bunsenlabs gnu/Linux iso, to get a problem wifi/broadcom card working in some Linux Mint installs I'd been playing with at the time. :) Bunsenlabs could be a good place to start for newer people, wanting to get more in-depth with Debian imo.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-22 19:49

I do have the option to connect it with wired internet. However it's giving me a "temporary name problem". Something like "name-tracing" (in dutch). Doesn't seem to matter if I have a wired connection or not.

I'm being really precise (by nature I guess). But it's the recognized part in your comment deb-fan.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby Deb-fan » 2019-10-22 21:11

Check your sources.list file, would be the place to start imo. Then of course run (as root)"apt-get update" to refresh the package lists for any software repositories you have enabled too. What you're doing there does require some learning and know-how. Not really the best place to start with Debian, though again, it's all been covered online.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-23 09:03

I figured out how to open sources.list with a text editor. And when I read the comments in there it actually says that I didn't choose for a network mirror and that the "following" lines act as a suggestion. So I feel as I'm real close to getting to the original install I wanted.

However if I uncomment those and then run apt-get update I get "temporary errors when searching for deb.debian.org"... and the other urls as well. I got the wired connection plugged in so I don't know why it's not getting it. Pinging doesn't work either.

I'm still trying different things so I'll let you know if I figure it out.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby kedaha » 2019-10-23 09:49

In case it helps here is a pristine, working sources.list, except the contrib and non-free repos are optional. You can choose your own mirror. Of course your cdrom entries will be different. The deb-src are only needed to compile/build packages oneself, so are commented out using the #
The # hashes before the entries mean they're not enabled.
Code: Select all
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 10.0.0 _Buster_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20190706-10:23]/ buster main

#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 10.0.0 _Buster_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20190706-10:23]/ buster main

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster main

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free

# buster-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-updates main
#deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-updates main

# This system was installed using small removable media
# (e.g. netinst, live or single CD). The matching "deb cdrom"
# entries were disabled at the end of the installation process.
# For information about how to configure apt package sources,
# see the sources.list(5) manual.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-23 10:10

kedaha wrote:In case it helps here is a pristine, working sources.list, except the contrib and non-free repos are optional. You can choose your own mirror. Of course your cdrom entries will be different. The deb-src are only needed to compile/build packages oneself, so are commented out using the #
The # hashes before the entries mean they're not enabled.
Code: Select all
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 10.0.0 _Buster_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20190706-10:23]/ buster main

#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 10.0.0 _Buster_ - Official amd64 NETINST 20190706-10:23]/ buster main

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster main

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free

# buster-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-updates main
#deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-updates main

# This system was installed using small removable media
# (e.g. netinst, live or single CD). The matching "deb cdrom"
# entries were disabled at the end of the installation process.
# For information about how to configure apt package sources,
# see the sources.list(5) manual.


Ok so I have errors again. However I'm thinking this dutch translating is being a problem. I think in english it would stay it has problems "resolving" deb.debian.org. So then it's a DNS problem probably.

Also, I have 2 comments sitting there saying "Line commented out by installer because it failed to verify:" with the following security URLS commented out. That was by default. Does it have anything to do with that verification failing?

Edit: If I try ping 8.8.8.8 it says can't connect to network.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby ImportantBookWorm » 2019-10-23 11:43

Ok so I decided to do the whole thing over again. Found another USB somewhere so I could load the non-free firmware. Had to make some decisions and chose Mate for example. But it's now ready and also connected to the internet. It also needed some Realtek firmware which I didn't know of yet. Perhaps that was the problem? I don't know. It's running now anyway so there don't seem to be any problems anymore. Thanks for the help so far though.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby kedaha » 2019-10-23 12:03

ImportantBookWorm wrote:Ok so I decided to do the whole thing over again. Found another USB somewhere so I could load the non-free firmware. Had to make some decisions and chose Mate for example. But it's now ready and also connected to the internet. It also needed some Realtek firmware which I didn't know of yet. Perhaps that was the problem? I don't know. It's running now anyway so there don't seem to be any problems anymore. Thanks for the help so far though.

the realtek could've been for the wired ethernet but a command like
# dmesg |grep firmware
will show what the problem was.
A fun suggestion :mrgreen: : Since you have a raspberrypi, you might like to use it as a web/email server. Even without a static IP it can be done.
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Re: Tried to install Debian, stuck at minimum installation.

Postby kedaha » 2019-10-23 12:04

ImportantBookWorm wrote:Ok so I decided to do the whole thing over again. Found another USB somewhere so I could load the non-free firmware. Had to make some decisions and chose Mate for example. But it's now ready and also connected to the internet. It also needed some Realtek firmware which I didn't know of yet. Perhaps that was the problem? I don't know. It's running now anyway so there don't seem to be any problems anymore. Thanks for the help so far though.

The realtek could've been for the wired ethernet but a command like
# dmesg |grep firmware
will show what the problem was.
A fun suggestion :mrgreen: : Since you have a raspberrypi, you might like to use it as a web/email server. Even without a static IP it can be done.
Mate DE & OSSv4.
FreedomBox in Debian
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Words, as is well known, are the great foes of reality. Joseph Conrad.
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