How to install programs on Debian without internet access?

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How to install programs on Debian without internet access?

Postby marcelocripe » 2020-06-11 18:44

Short title: How to install programs on Debian without internet access?

Full title: How to install packages or programs on Debian (debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso or debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso) on a computer or notebook without internet access?

Hello dear colleagues.

I am starting with Debian.

And I managed to do the installation on a computer, I was impressed with this operating system.

I need to install application programs on computers or notebooks that do not have internet access, that is, I need to install packages offline. (it will be my main way to install programs, without internet access)

The main objective is to reuse donated or discarded computers / notebooks that have about 512 MB up to 2 GB of RAM with DDR1 or DDR2 technology and Intel processors: Pentium IV, Celeron, Atom and AMD processors: Athlon, Duron and etc.

I have some doubts that I did not find explanations or answers in this forum or in the vast documentation at the link https://wiki.debian.org/ or https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 04.html.en .

The system / hardware requirements described in the link:
https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 04.html.en are they correct for Debian 10.4.0 Buster?

Table 3.2 Recommended minimum system requirements

Installation type RAM (minimum) RAM (recommended) Hard disk
Without desktop 128 megabytes 512 megabytes 2 gigabytes
With Desktop 256 megabytes 1 gigabyte 10 gigabytes

The actual minimum memory requirements are much less than the numbers listed in this table. Depending on the architecture, it is possible to install Debian with less than 20 MB (for s390) to 60 MB (for amd64). The same goes for disk space requirements, especially if you choose which applications to install; see Section D.2, “Disk space required for tasks” (https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 02.html.en) for additional information on disk space requirements.

Which window manager (or desktop) consumes less processing and less RAM in Debian 10.4.0 Buster?

What is the difference between ISOs and what are they for?
Link: https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/cu ... 4/iso-dvd/
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-2.iso
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-3.iso
and
Link: https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/cu ... 6/iso-dvd/
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-2.iso
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-3.iso

I was unable to find a description or explanation of the various ISOs available for download.

The goal is to reuse the computers described above in graphical mode, if possible with the version of the Debian operating system with a window manager that consumes less processing and less RAM.

Is it possible to install packages in which formats or extensions (.tar.gz, tar.bz2, tar.xz, .dep and etc.)?

Does Debian have its own package or does it use various package formats for installing programs?

What is the format of Debian packages? (there are many Linux distributions, it is a mess for those who are starting)

Is it possible to just download the packages with a computer connected to the internet, copy them to a flash drive, CD or DVD and later install the packages manually on other computers without an internet connection?

How to download and install manually?

What is the link to the stable Debian archive so that I can download the complete packages with their respective dependencies?

How are the programs organized after installation? Where are the programs installed in Debian located?

Creating remastered versions of Debian is not the best option for me, considering that I will be able to transport the downloaded packages on a DVD, CD or pendrive media and install them on each computer or notebook even if they do not have internet access.

I thank anyone who can help me.

marcelocripe

Original text in Brazilian Portuguese, translated into English by Google translator.

------------------------

Título resumido: Como instalar programas no Debian sem acesso a internet?

Título completo: Como instalar pacotes ou programas no Debian (debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso ou debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso) em computador ou notebook sem acesso a internet?

Olá caro colegas.

Eu estou iniciando com o Debian.

E consegui fazer a instalação em um computador, fiquei impressionado com este sistema operacional.

Eu preciso instalar programas aplicativos em computadores ou notebook que não possuem acesso a internet, ou seja, preciso fazer instalações de pacotes offline. (será a minha principal forma de instalar programas, sem acesso a internet)

O principal objetivo é de reutilizar computadores / notebook doados ou descartados que possuem cerca de 512 MB até 2 GB de memória RAM com tecnologia DDR1 ou DDR2 e processadores Intel: Pentium IV, Celeron, Atom e processadores AMD: Athlon, Duron e etc.

Eu possuo algumas dúvidas que não encontrei explicações ou respostas neste fórum ou na vasta documentação no link https://wiki.debian.org/ ou https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 04.html.en.

Os requisitos de sistemas/hardware descritos no link:
https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 04.html.en estão corretos para o Debian 10.4.0 Buster?

Quadro 3.2 Requisitos mínimos de sistema recomendados

Tipo de instalação RAM (mínimo) RAM (recomendado) Disco rígido
Sem área de trabalho 128 megabytes 512 megabytes 2 gigabytes
With Desktop 256 megabytes 1 gigabyte 10 gigabytes

Os requisitos mínimos reais de memória são muito menores que os números listados nesta tabela. Dependendo da arquitetura, é possível instalar o Debian com menos de 20 MB (para s390) a 60 MB (para amd64). O mesmo vale para os requisitos de espaço em disco, especialmente se você escolher quais aplicativos instalar; consulte a Seção D.2, “Espaço em disco necessário para tarefas” (https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 02.html.en) para obter informações adicionais sobre os requisitos de espaço em disco.

Qual gerenciador de janelas (ou ambiente de trabalho) que consome menos processamento e menos memória RAM no Debian 10.4.0 Buster?

Qual é a diferença entre as ISOs e para que servem?
Link: https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/cu ... 4/iso-dvd/
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-2.iso
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-3.iso
e
Link: https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/cu ... 6/iso-dvd/
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-2.iso
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-3.iso

Eu não consegui encontrar descrição ou explicações sobre as diversas ISOs disponíveis para download.

O objetivo é de reutilizar os computadores descritos acima em modo gráfico, se possível com a versão do sistema operacional Debian com gerenciador de janelas que consome menos processamento e menos memória RAM .

É possível instalar pacotes em quais formatos ou extensões (.tar.gz, tar.bz2, tar.xz, .dep e etc.)?

O Debian possui pacote próprio ou usa vários formatos de pacotes para instalação de programas?

Qual é o formato dos pacotes do Debian? (são muitas distribuições Linux, é uma confusão para quem está iniciando)

É possível fazer somente o download dos pacotes com um computador conectado na internet, copiar para um pendrive, CD ou DVD e posteriormente instalar os pacotes manualmente em outros computadores sem conexão com a internet?

Como fazer o download e a instalação manual?

Qual é o link do repositório do Debian estável para que eu possa baixar os pacotes completos com as suas respectivas dependências?

Como são organizados os programas após a instalação? Onde ficam localizados os programas instalados no Debian?

Criar versões remasterizadas do Debian não é a melhor opção para mim, haja vista que poderei transportar os pacotes baixados em uma mídia de DVD, CD ou pendrive e instalar em cada computador ou notebook mesmo que não possuam acesso a internet.

Desde já agradeço a quem puder me ajudar.

marcelocripe

Texto original em idioma português do Brasil, traduzido para o inglês por Google tradutor.
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Re: How to install programs on Debian without internet acces

Postby cuckooflew » 2020-06-11 19:29

There are way to many other questions here, I think many are answered if you read the Debian documentation , a good starting point:https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-faq/
==========
and https://www.debian.org/CD/faq/
============================
https://wiki.debian.org/FAQ

As for the first question:
How to install programs on Debian without internet access?

https://debian-administration.org/article/648/Offline_Package_Management_for_APT
Note, we call the programs. packages , because they are a package of everything needed for the program...you will get better search results if you use "Debian packages", as your keywords: EG:
Code: Select all
How to install packages on Debian without internet access?
Copy /paste into a search engine.
Please Read What we expect you have already Done
Google knows a lot, and
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…one flew east, one flew west,
One flew over the cuckoo’s nest.
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Re: How to install programs on Debian without internet acces

Postby stevepusser » 2020-06-12 05:59

What is the intended use case of these old machines?. They are probably too old for a modern web browser experience, but they can be useful in other ways.

You don't want the default GNOME desktop, it's far too heavy for those machines. Try something lightweight.

If you're going to do multiple installs on these machines, perhaps you could make a customized ISO with your desired programs installed by default, and use that to install over and over on these machines. I know an ISO like that is very easy to create on antiX or MX Linux, but perhaps would need something like Remastersys on Debian.

Vey often, programs on Debian consist of many packages, and may need other packages to enable other of their features. Synaptic Package Manager is supposed to be able to generate a download script you can run on a connected machine in order to download the whole dependency chain of a program, but I've never tested that.
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Re: How to install programs on Debian without internet acces

Postby Head_on_a_Stick » 2020-06-12 08:41

marcelocripe wrote:Which window manager (or desktop) consumes less processing and less RAM in Debian 10.4.0 Buster?

Of the desktops LXDE or LXQt are probably the lightest but there isn't much between those and Xfce & Plasma (née KDE). GNOME's a bloatfest though so don't bother with that on humble machines. I would recommend that you try the live ISO images for yourself, they'll work slower than on the metal but should provide a fair comparison.

For the window managers dwm is probably the lightest of all but it's not very user friendly and will require recompilation for any configuration changes. Fluxbox, JWM or icewm will get close to dwm and are much more convenient in that respect.

I personally like the openbox/tint2 combination but it isn't that much lighter than the more minimal desktops.

marcelocripe wrote:What is the difference between ISOs and what are they for?
Link: https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/cu ... 4/iso-dvd/
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-2.iso
debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-3.iso
and
Link: https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/cu ... 6/iso-dvd/
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-2.iso
debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-3.iso

Those images are intended for users such as yourself who may not have an internet connection. They contain the software from the repositories in order of popularity (as defined by popcon) so you probably only need the first DVD.

Sorry but I haven't read your entire OP too closely, I just don't have the patience, so I may have missed some details.
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Re: How to install programs on Debian without internet acces

Postby marcelocripe » 2020-06-13 00:56

Hello cuckooflew and stevepusser ..

Thank you for responding.

Cuckooflew, I read the documentation, got lost in the middle of so many links, came back, looked again and my doubts were not in the "frequently asked questions".

Basic information such as system requirements required by the ISOs debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso and debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso, is not available on the Debian website. What you have is the version information Debian Jessie, look at the link: https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 04.html.en

Thanks for the tips and especially for the link: https://debian-administration.org/artic ... nt_for_APT, I believe that I will be able to implement, if the tutorial is well explained.

Stevepusser, I know the post and the text got really big and tiring, sorry ...

The Debian documentation is very scattered and loose, basic information about system requirements, what is in each ISO, has nowhere, I checked the wiki and FAQs and has no updated information, what is there is information about Debian Jessie, the texts about offline installations are explained to those who already know Debian, for newbies like me, it doesn't make any sense. There is another problem, the translations are not always understandable.

"What is the intended use case of these old machines ?. They are probably too old for a modern web browser experience, but they can be useful in other ways."

The goal is to prevent them from being thrown in the trash, as this is exactly what programmed obsolescence does with equipment that can still be reused for the learning of children, young people and adults who do not have their own computers, so little access to the internet, with some exceptions have internet connection and an old smartphone. At least that's what I hope to be able to implement with a Linux distribution.

"Those images are intended for users such as yourself who may not have an internet connection. They contain the software from the repositories in order of popularity (as defined by popcon) so you probably only need the first DVD."

You showed me the way ... Thank you! ISOs that have no explanation on the download page of what they are.

Thank you very much for all your explanations.

marcelocripe

Original text in Brazilian Portuguese, translated into English by Google translator.

----------------------

Olá cuckooflew e stevepusser ..

Agradeço por responderem.

Cuckooflew, eu li a documentação, me perdi nos meios de tantos links, voltava, procurava novamente e as minhas dúvidas não estavam nas "perguntas frequentes".

Informações básicas como de requisitos de sistemas exigidos pelas ISOs debian-10.4.0-i386-DVD-1.iso e debian-10.4.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso, não tem disponível no site do Debian. O que tem é a informação da versão Debian Jessie, olha o link: https://www.debian.org/releases/jessie/ ... 04.html.en

Agradeço pelas dicas e principalmente pelo link: https://debian-administration.org/artic ... nt_for_APT, acredito que eu conseguirei implementar, se o tutorial estiver bem explicado.

Stevepusser, eu sei que a postagem e o texto ficou muito grande e cansativo, me desculpem ...

A documentação do Debian é muito espalhada e solta, informações básicas sobre requisitos de sistemas, o que possui em cada ISO, não tem em lugar algum, eu revirei a wiki e os FAQ e não tem informações atualizadas, o que tem é informações sobre Debian Jessie, os textos sobre instalações offline estão explicados para quem já domina o Debian, para os novatos como eu, não faz sentido algum. Ainda tem outro problema, nem sempre as traduções ficam compreensíveis.

"What is the intended use case of these old machines?. They are probably too old for a modern web browser experience, but they can be useful in other ways."

O objetivo é impedir de serem jogados no lixo, pois é exatamente isso que a obsolência programada fazem com equipamentos que ainda podem ser reutilizados para o aprendizado de crianças, jovens e adultos que não possuem computadores próprios, tão pouco acesso a internet, salvo algumas exceções possuem conexão com a internet e um smartphone antigo. Pelo menos é o que eu espero conseguir implementar com uma distribuição Linux.

"Those images are intended for users such as yourself who may not have an internet connection. They contain the software from the repositories in order of popularity (as defined by popcon) so you probably only need the first DVD."

Você me mostrou o caminho ... Obrigado! As ISOs que não possuem explicações na página de download do que são.

Muito obrigado por todas as suas explicações.

marcelocripe

Texto original em idioma português do Brasil, traduzido para o inglês por Google tradutor.
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